Each of the games I listed should, hopefully, scratch a slightly different itch.
Broadly speaking, Ultraworld begs the question who am I? While Everything says, "There is no I, just a bunch of separate parts of we."
Scanner Sombre implicitly asks you to mentally map out an area in your head. While Antichamber explicitly forces you to understand the world in new, interesting, and impractical ways.
Rounding up the bunch we have Zeno Clash. Mechanically this game is a first person brawler. While this is much more traditional compared to the other games, which lean toward the puzzle genre or the walking simulator genre, it also has the most overtly insane world on the list.
So what do you think? I know I must have missed some (or possibly many) games. Let me know of some games you would have featured in this listicle in the comments below.